A first Russian revolution in 1905 that stemmed from labor unrest, student unrest, agricultural problems and discrimination against ethnic groups led to a series of reforms, such as the creation of the Duma or lower congress and a 1906 constitution. However, little more than a decade later, the government's mismanagement of World War I pushed the country directly over the brink into full scale communist revolution. First, because Russia was technologically behind its German enemy, it suffered its highest war casualties ever (and this in a country that had endured a Napoleonic invasion). Second, corruption was rampant and Tsar Nicholas II repeatedly dissolved the Duma when it wouldn't do as he wanted. People therefore increasingly lost faith in the government's ability to solve problems. Third, the war effort disrupted the economy and, finally, the intellectual class threw its lot in with the disgruntled workers. One can make a strong argument that without the highly destabilizing effects of a disastrous war overlaid on an already unstable situation, Russia might have lurched towards a more modern state without a full-scale revolution. The war, however, led directly to the revolution.