Roman Empire

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How was the Roman world shaped by trade?

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Many people consider the Roman military more important than any other aspect of Roman civilization. Indeed the military was altered enormously under dictator Caesar Augustus, transforming the legions originally made up of untrained civilians to one of seasoned career soldiers.

Originally the legions had been manned by small farmers...[when] hope of restoring the old republic ended [this changed]. The [new] Roman soldier often owned no land and fought primarily for himself and his commander, who could give him land, money, and a good position...

Roman civilization was most widely changed by a developing language—the result of interactions with other...

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