In Dogeaters, why was the Avila family considered "Communist"? Characters and their political affiliation

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The Avila family is a left-ist leaning family. They have been made this way by the corruption of the Philippine government. The story is supposed to have taken place during the corrupt rule of the Marcos family. Imelda and Ferdinand Marcos practically bankrupted the Philippines with their extravagant lifestyle and disregard for the Philippine people, despite the fact that they claimed they were motivated by their love for the people. In this novel, Senator Avila, his wife (a professor) and his daughter, Daisy, all reject the government. They support freedom for the Philippine people, but at this period of time, that support aligns them with the “left” and the revolutionary movement. Senator Avila is assassinated and his daughter, Daisy, runs away to join the revolutionary group fighting against the government. Daisy is first captured, tortured and raped by General Ledesma, and this further “makes” her into a guerilla.

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