How were the voyages of exploration led by James Cook different from the earlier voyages of discovery undertaken by Columbus and other Spanish and Portuguese explorers?

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James Cook's first voyage was for scientific exploration purposes. He was sent to the Pacific Ocean in support of the Royal Society's research into determining the accurate longitude of the Earth. Cook was a cartographer and captain in the Royal Navy.

In contrast, Christopher Columbus embarked on his first voyage to the Americas under the sponsorship and orders of the...

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