Okay, let's start with the seven step decision model. The steps are:
1.) State the problem - What is the ethical question?
2.) Check facts - Is there really a problem?
3.) Identify relevant factors - People involved, professional standards, applicable laws, etc.
4.) Develop a list of options - What other actions or decisions are available?
5.) Test the options
6.) Make a choice
7.) Review 1-6 and ask what could be done so that this decision does not have to be made again?
Now, let's look at Mickey Mantle. Mantle was a phenomenal baseball player and full of natural talent. However, with a mix of multiple injuries, alcoholism, and no concern for his health, his career ended too soon. His alcohol abuse led to liver failure, resulting in a need for a liver transplant. Shortly after the transplant, Mantle died of cancer at the age of 63. Mantle never thought he would live past his early forties and, as a result, did not take care of himself. Most men in his family died early from Hodgkin's Disease. Mantle even said, "If I knew I was going to live this long I would have taken better care of myself."
The Mantle effect came about after Mickey Mantle's death as a way to look at life expectancy and the level of care for one's health. For example, if someone has a long life expectancy, their reasons for taking care of their personal health increase. Various risks are also calculated.