How is Urea manufactured?please include the word equeation and chemical reaction. Also include the advantages and disadvantages of the fertilizer.
it is manufactured through protein synthensis
it is also known as carbamide
This is because it is at the end of chain of reactions which break down the amino acids that make up proteins. These amino acids are metabolised and converted in the liver to ammonia, CO2, water and energy. But the ammonia is toxic to cells, and so must be excreted from the body. Aquatic creatures, such as fish, can expel the ammonia directly into the water, but land-based animals need another disposal method. So the liver converts the ammonia to a non-toxic compound, urea, which can then be safely transported in the blood to the kidneys, where it is eliminated in urine.
2NH3 + CO2 ------> (NH2)2CO+H2O
Advantages of fertiliser
Suitable for all types of crops: this fertilizer is organic and contains only nitrogen and carbon dioxide and therefore it does not harm the crops. Carbon dioxide causes no harm to the soil either when it is mixed.
Lower cost of production: it requires lesser cost of production compared to other fertilizers and can be produced easily with the use of ammonia and carbon dioxide which is quite cheap.
Excellent shelf life: it can be stored for a longer period of time as it is usually available in form of large granules which are moisture-resistant.
Safe to store: it does not explode or cause fire when exposed so there is no risk involved in storing it.
Blends easily with other fertilizers: urea blends easily with other fertilizers and it is often mixed with other fertilizers to achieve desired results.
Yields best results: when applied in correct amounts, this fertilizer produces and improves yields in large amounts.
Increases the fertility of the soil: known to increase the fertility of the soil in many ways, this fertilizer enriches the soil and augments the life of plants.
Does not pollute the environment: production and application of this fertilizer does not cause any kind of pollution to the environment.
Urea is composed of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. It is found in urine, sweat, blood and milk in mammals etc. Urea is a white organic and crystalline substance and has minimum of 46% Nitrogen. The melting point of nitrogen is 132 deg F.
Chemical Formula: CO(NH2)2 or NH2CONH2
Urea is made by reacting carbon dioxide (CO2) with anhydrous ammonia (NH3) under pressure of 3000 psi and temperatures of around 350 deg F. Water is removed during this process and the molten urea is either converted to prills or into granules.
Chemical reaction for urea: CO2 + 2NH3 -----> CO(NH2) (Urea) +H2O
Advantages of Urea Fertilizer
When applied in measured proportions and through precise methodology, urea works wonder for all crops and increases the yields by great proportions. As urea comprises of 46% N, it can be easily stored, transported and handled safely. There are no explosion hazards caused by urea fertilizer. Providing each plant with relevant elements needed, urea sustains plant life.
Disadvantages of Urea Fertilizer
Urea Fertilizer releases harmful pollutants during its manufacturing process. The manufacturing involves emission of pollutant gases in the air. It exerts higher concentrations of ammonia in the soil making it even more acidic and thus retards the soil of its natural fertility.