This is a good question.
The first point that can be made is that all three occupations differ in function. For this reason alone, their training is different. Or we can say that their socialization is different. The lawyer is more academic in his or her training and seeks to sway opinions through evidence. Moreover, lawyers seek to defend and convict through the use of the law.
The police do something very different. They are the ones who enforce the law and seek to capture those who break the law. When it comes to correction workers, they seek to reform criminals who have been found guilty.
From these points, we can say that the socialization and training are different, based on their functions in society.
Socialization of occupations can differ greatly, because they (the various occupations) serve different functions in society. When it comes to lawyers, police officers, and correction workers, they all have different functions in society. So, their socialization will be different in some respects.
When it comes to the lawyer, he or she is an expert in the law. Moreover, they either seek to prosecute or defend people through the law and evidence. When it comes to the police, they know the law, but their job is to capture criminals or to maintain peace. When it comes to correction workers, they seek to reform criminals.
As one can see, there is some overlap, but there are profound differences. So, their socialization differs.
Another perspective can be given by looking at education. For example, lawyers not only go to college, but also law school. Police officers and correction officials may or may not have gone to college. This fact also make their socialization different.