The similarity between the methods that Cavour and Bismarck used in their attempts to unify their respective nations can be summed up in their employment of the concepts of realpolitik, war, and diplomatic manipulation.
Both men were strong nationalists and monarchists, but that seems to be where their ideals ended. They did not shy away from lying and cheating to achieve their goals. In their efforts to unite their nations, they focused on "practical" matters, even if many would find their actions immoral. To Cavour and Bismarck, the ends justified the means.
For instance, Cavour knew that he could not achieve his goals without outside help from a strong foreign power. Napoleon III seemed like a good potential ally for him. Cavour secretly negotiated an alliance with the French and then instigated a fight between Sardinia and Austria to get them involved. Following this short war, Sardinia and Lombardy were joined. Later, Cavour organized votes in other Italian lands his army had...
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