A Christmas Carol Questions and Answers
by Charles Dickens

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How does Scrooge change throughout A Christmas Carol?

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Scrooge changes from a miserly and unhappy person who only cares about money (in the beginning of the novel) to a generous and happy person who cares most about other people (by the end of the novel). Early on, the narrator describes Scrooge as

a squeezing, wrenching, grasping, scraping, clutching, covetous, old sinner! Hard and sharp as flint, from which no steel had ever struck out generous fire; secret, and self-contained, and solitary as an oyster. The cold within him froze his old features . . . He carried his own low temperature always about with him.

In other words, Scrooge is callous and unfeeling, completely lacking in generosity or even goodwill toward his fellows. He's as hard as a rock, a simile Dickens uses to describe his lack of feeling. He keeps himself to himself and does not engage with other people if he can help it. He is so "cold"—another way to express his indifference to humanity—that it...

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