How does Saadat Hasan Manto portray hypocrisy in Mottled Dawn?

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Mottled Dawn: Fifty Sketches and Stories of Partition is a collection of short stories by the Pakistani writer Saadat Hasan Manto. The stories are painful reflections of the communal frenzy that followed the partition of India in 1947. Manto chronicles the hypocrisy of people who coexisted for centuries but became enemies because of where they fell along the religious and political divide.

Mottled Dawn depicts violence against women during the crisis. In the short stories—"Toba Tek Singh," "The Dutiful Daughter," "Thanda Gosht (Cold Meat)," "Khol Do (Open It)," "Mozail," and "A Girl from Delhi"— Manto creates diverse female characters. His narratives mediate our understanding of the misogynistic beliefs and sexual horrors that women faced during the partition. Manto rejects the patriarchal attitude that looks at women as "symbols of honor." He emphasizes that sexual objectification and exploitation are tools that men use to seek vengeance on each other. He exposes the hypocrisy of the male perpetrators who prey on vulnerable women, regardless of their religion or identity.

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