How is Romanticism the opposite of the Enlightenment?

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The enlightenment was the age of scientific progress, but romanticism was the age of art. You could say that art and science are opposites. What these two movements had in common is that they were an alternative to the strict dogma of the church.
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The Enlightenment's driving force was rationality and scientific progress.  This premise helped to enhance the idea that individuals, through inquiry and rational thought, can help improve their world in ways that can benefit the larger social element.  Emotions were seen as inhibitors to true progress and advancement.  This is where the Romantics saw things quite different.  As opposed to devaluing the subjective experience, the Romantics hoped to place primacy on it, believing that the individual narrative and sensation of emotional experience can help to reveal a sense of universal truth from the personalized notion of the good.  In this, emotions are not to be overcome.  Standardization tools such as science are perceived as the force of deadening, something to overcome.

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In response to the cultural and political conditions in late 18th century Europe, Romanticism, or at least "romantic sensibilities," spread westward from Germany, France, and Italy into Britain, reshaping its literary and artistic landscape. No longer believing that the universe was a static machine, British Romantic authors and artists developed a "mystic ecstasy" in their works to emphasize a connection between the individual and a dynamic universe in which nature became a life-force of inspiration. British Romantic poets and painters saw flashes of universal insight; they became visionaries who departed from the temporal world in their works and set upon a sublime, almost "out-of-body" experience, to redefine the conceptions of beauty in art and nature. Artists believed they could create meaning in what they saw, that their minds were active agents upon the universe, that their visions were each unique and yet still connected to nature and their fellow man's.

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I would say that the quick answer to this is that they are opposites because reason and emotion are opposites.

The major idea of the Enlightenment is that people should use their reason for everything.  It is the idea that pretty much everything can be figured out through science and logic.

By contrast, the Romantics were very much into the idea of feelings and emotions.  They liked things like nature because nature can give you intense feelings.  They were into the supernatural because that gives you feelings that are intense as well.

You tagged this with "Frankenstein." I think you can see that as a Romantic argument against Enlightenment, scientific values (Victor's).

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