The most basic features of African physical geography are deserts, rivers, and jungles.
Northern Africa is bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea and on the south by the Sahara Desert. It generally has a Mediterranean climate near the sea. In Tunisia and to the west, there are the Atlas Mountains between the ocean and the desert.
The Sahara Desert covers a huge area of Africa—more than 3.6 million square miles. It makes up part of the land territory of every country in North Africa. The Nile River runs through the eastern part of the Sahara Desert, rising in the highlands of Ethiopia (Blue Nile) and in Lake Victoria (White Nile) and running to the Mediterranean. It is the longest river in the world.
Africa has other big rivers. These include the Zambezi, the Niger, and the Congo. These rivers typically go over falls not far from the coast and cannot be navigated inland from the ocean.
Eastern Africa is made up largely of highlands. The highlands in that region are cut by two rift valleys. These are the Eastern Rift Valley and the Western Rift Valley.
South of the Sahara, much of Africa is made up of jungle. There is also, however, the Namib and the Kalahari deserts in the south. In addition, there are savannas in southern Africa.
This is, of course, a very brief look at the physical geography of this continent.