Nathaniel Hawthorne was affected by Puritanism in a number of different ways. After all, Hawthorne was born and raised in New England, a part of the country in which the Puritan heritage was especially strong. Moreover, Hawthorne’s own ancestors had been Puritans. One of them, in fact, had been involved in the infamous witch trials at Salem, and Hawthorne seems to have been quite troubled by the conduct of this ancestor in particular. Another way in which the influence of Puritanism can be seen in Hawthorne’s writings involves his deep interest in sin. Hawthorne’s writings are often dark and gloomy, but they are also almost always morally serious. In other words, they almost always deal with matters of right and wrong, of good conduct and bad. Hawthorne was highly aware of the often grim legacy of Puritanism, and he was also interested in the hypocrisy that Puritan beliefs could sometimes produce in some people.
Hypocrisy, of course, is a major theme of Hawthorne’s “Young Goodman Brown.” Brown himself seems hypocritical when he heads off into the woods, apparently to meet the devil, assuming that he can engage in evil one last time before he returns to a life that he assumes will be entirely virtuous. However, Brown is even more hypocritical when he passes harsh judgment on others he encounters in the woods, even though he himself is there. He is especially distraught when he thinks he discovers that his own wife, Faith, whom he had considered completely pure, is also in the woods, apparently communing with Satan. Brown’s tendency to judge others harshly for thoughts and deeds of which he may be guilty himself makes him liable to the charges of hypocrisy that were often leveled against Puritans.
Perhaps the most disturbing section of “Young Goodman Brown” is the final paragraph, which notes of Brown that after he returned from the woods to town, he became a
stern, a sad, a darkly meditative, a distrustful, if not a desperate man . . . from the night of that fearful dream. On the Sabbath day, when the congregation were singing a holy psalm, he could not listen because an anthem of sin rushed loudly upon his ear and drowned all the blessed strain. When the minister spoke from the pulpit with power and fervid eloquence, and, with his hand on the open Bible, of the sacred truths of our religion, and of saint-like lives and triumphant deaths, and of future bliss or misery unutterable, then did Goodman Brown turn pale, dreading lest the roof should thunder down upon the gray blasphemer and his hearers.
In other words, Brown takes on the role of God. He self-righteously and inappropriately condemns others for their supposed transgressions. Rather than examining himself and his own scrutinizing his own conscience, he presumes to sit in judgment of others.