Firstly, it is important to define what period is Modern Literature. Modern literature does not begin until 1914. Shakespeare and Thomas Moore wrote well before this period. Both of those authors did concern themselves with social and religious conflict.
Writers in the early Modern era were James Joyce, Will Faulkner, and Evelyn Waugh, just to name a couple. They also wrote greatly about social and religious problems of their day. The Modern era was a confused time when people were especially confused and lost. Everything (for really the first time) seemed fragmented and unordered. Religion and society were especially prone to analysis.
My University course states that the Early Modern Period runs from 1500-1800 in Western Europe. At the moment we are looking at the first half of this which is why I suggested Shakespeare or Thomas More. Sorry about the confusion!