How does Milton meditate upon different ways to serve to God in his sonnet "On His Blindness"?

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In this sonnet, Milton laments at first the fact that the "one Talent which is death to hide" is now useless and dormant within him. The title gives us an indication as to why: because the poet is now blind, his talents are no longer able to express themselves so easily, although the speaker is inclined ("bent") to use these talents in service and praise of his "Maker." However, the speaker recognizes that God, unlike a mortal lord or employer, does not "exact day-labour." Milton sets up the comparison of himself, now unable to work because of his blindness, with a day labourer who is unable to continue labouring because of a lack of light ("light deny'd"), but then dismisses this comparison as unfitting.

Instead, the speaker says, God "doth not need / Either man's work or his own gifts." Rather than laboring in service of God, those who "bear his mild yoak" are the best true servants. The conclusion of this sonnet is extremely famous, as it sets out an argument against the idea that it is only through deeds that we can redeem ourselves and be worthy of God. Milton argues here that, rather than serving God only through labor "without rest," "they also serve who only stand and waite." Patient dedication to God is just as worthy as committing our talents to his service.

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Milton wrote his sonnet "On His Blindness" after he went completely blind in middle age. The sonnet is autobiographical and written in the first person. Since Milton was a deeply religious writer, he tried to understand his blindness within the context of his faith.

The octave of the sonnet laments Milton's loss of sight. As a writer, Milton strove to serve God by writing on various religious topics. His greatest work, Paradise Lost, tried to "justify the ways of God to men." In light of this, Milton feels his blindness prevents him from serving God, and wonders why God would deprive him of the means by which he expresses his faith.

In the sestet, Milton realizes the thoughts he had in the octave spring from his own egotism and false understanding of God. He realizes,

God doth not need

Either man's work or his own gifts.

Instead, what God desires of humans is faith and obedience, and Milton discovers that one can best serve God by subordinating one's own will to divine will and that service to God can take many different forms. 

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