Socialization is the process by which individuals learn what society expects of them and how they will have to behave in order to be accepted by society. Within a society, though, there can be different subcultures in which children are socialized differently. Differences in socialization can lead to differences in people’s attitudes on various issues.
The things that you are asking about in this question (politics, economics, organizational power structures) all have to do to a large degree with issues of authority and of justice. This means that, when people’s views on these things differ, it may be because they have been socialized differently. This may happen in a person’s education, but it is even more likely to happen through family and religion.
For example, let us imagine that a person grows up in an authoritarian household that is deeply involved in a conservative church. Such a person might well grow up to believe that it is proper to obey authority, that justice should be stern, and that all people get whatever economic level of achievement they deserve. By contrast, a person brought up in a more liberal household and not in a church might believe the exact opposite.
In these ways, one’s socialization can affect one’s attitudes on justice and obedience to authority. This, in turn, affects one’s attitudes about power, politics, and economics.