How is metaphor used to clarify the relationship between speaker and Lord in Psalm 23?

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The Lord is referred to as "my Shepherd", meaning that the speaker would be a lamb.  This clarifies the understanding that the Lord provides for, protects, nourished, and otherwise cares for the lamb.  In the 23rd Psalm, the Shepherd specifically leads the lamb past calm waters, allows him to rest in green pastures, restores his, restores its soul, and takes care of it in every way.

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