Science has two main components the natural sciences (which deal with the study of natural phenomena) and the social sciences (which concern human behavior and societal relations). Within these two branches it can be broken down further as follows:
Under natural sciences (which can be broken down further) you have:
- Life Sciences
- Physical Sciences
- Earth Sciences
Under social sciences you can have anything from linguistics to political science, most of the humanities and liberal arts would be categorized under social sciences.
You also have your applied sciences (things like engineering and medicine) which concern the applications of the principles from the fundamental sciences. Finally you have the formal sciences which would include areas of study like mathematics and statistics.