How many organelles are in a plant cell?

Plant cells contain at least seventeen organelles, which are the ribosome, Golgi vesicles, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, nucleolus, nucleus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, large central vacuole, amyloplast, cell wall, cell membrane, Golgi apparatus, vacuole membrane, chloroplast, raphide crystal, druse crystal, mitochondrion, and cytoplasm. Each of these organelles performs a specialized function within the plant cell.

Expert Answers

An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

Plant and animal cells are comprised of sub-units, known as organelles, which perform specific functions within the cell. Many types of organelles are present in both plant and animal cells; however, some types of organelles are exclusive to plant cells. Plant cells contain at least seventeen organelles, and these are the ribosome, Golgi vesicles, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, nucleolus, nucleus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, large central vacuole, amyloplast, cell wall, cell membrane, Golgi apparatus, vacuole membrane, chloroplast, raphide crystal, druse crystal, mitochondrion, and cytoplasm.

Ribosomes are responsible for synthesizing proteins by building amino acid chains.

Golgi vesicles contain proteins and travel to the cell membrane, where they become one with the cell membrane and release their contents to the cell's exterior. This process is known as exocytosis. Some Golgi vesicles are lysosomes and participate in the digestive process within the cell.

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for the production of hormones and lipids.

The nucleolus is responsible for creating the structures used in building proteins and ribosomes.

The nucleus contains the cell's DNA and is responsible for coordinating activities and functions within the cell.

The rough endoplasmic reticulum plays a significant role in the building of proteins.

The large central vacuole stores water, regulates turgid pressure, and guides the cell's contents toward the membrane, which facilitates photosynthesis.

The amyloplast is located in the cell's cytoplasm and it stores amylopectin.

The cell wall is located outside the cell's membrane. It protects the contents of the cell, gives the cell structure, and filters the molecules that travel in and out of the cell.

The cell membrane is a semipermeable layer of protein and fat located inside the cell wall. It filters the substances that travel in and out of the cell.

The Golgi apparatus transports and alters proteins and lipids into vesicles, which are then transported to different locations within the cell.

The vacuole membrane surrounds the vacuole and separates the vacuole's contents from the cytoplasm.

The chloroplast is responsible for carrying out photosynthesis, which is the process by which plants use light to create food.

The raphide crystals are products of the cell's metabolism. They are needle shaped and are largely comprised of calcium.

The druse crystals are globular or star-shaped toxic crystals. They are believed to protect the plant cell from being consumed by herbivores.

The mitochondrion play significant roles in cellular respiration and photosynthesis.

The cytoplasm is a collective term for all of the contents contained within a cell membrane, with the exception of the nucleus.

Approved by eNotes Editorial Team