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How many grams of calcium chloride (CaCl2; molecular weight = 111 g mole^−1) would you dissolve in water to make a 0.2 M CaCl2 solution with 200 mL final volume?

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This is a molarity problem, and molarity is defined by the moles of solute in one liter of solution. In this case, the calcium chloride is the solute (thing being dissolved) and the solution is just the calcium chloride dissolved in water. Basically you're talking about how concentrated or diluted the mixture is but in terms of quantitative ratios.

A 1M, or "one molar" solution, would have one mole of solute in one liter of solution. One liter is the same as 1000 milliliters, so you can swap that term out in any...

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