The Lower Canada Rebellion of 1837 was a rebellion that was launched by French-Canadian nationalists in what is now Quebec. It was then called "Lower Canada" to distinguish it from "Upper Canada," which is now Ontario.
The rebels in Lower Canada had two major issues that were important to them. First, they wanted more self-government. They wanted more control over what revenues were raised in their province and how those revenues were spent. Second, they were French nationalists. They were worried about the growing power of Anglophones who came to Lower Canada. This was especially because there was an increase in immigration during the time before the rebellion.
The rebellion (and a simultaneous one in Upper Canada) failed. Even so, they did help bring about responsible government for Canada, which was granted by the Act of Union in 1840.