How does Lady Macbeth dominate her husband throughout the play?  

Lady Macbeth dominates her husband in the first part of the play by implying his manhood will be undermined in her eyes if he doesn't kill Duncan. After the murder, the two are increasingly alienated from each other, and Lady Macbeth loses her influence over her husband. She descends into madness and suicide.

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Lady Macbeth dominates her husband from the first time they appear together in act 1, scene 5. It is noticeable how little he speaks in her presence, despite his eloquence in other situations. Her method of control is more subtle than being a mere harridan, since she bestows her good opinion on him, lavishing him with praise, then sharply withdraws this approval when he fails to act as she wishes. She greets him as a hero:

Great Glamis! worthy Cawdor!
Greater than both, by the all-hail hereafter!

However, almost immediately, she begins to order him about:

Look like the time; bear welcome in your eye,
Your hand, your tongue: look like the innocent flower,
But be the serpent under't.

In act 1, scene 8, Macbeth completely changes his purpose, from vowing at the beginning of the scene that he will proceed "no further" in the business of killing Duncan, then, after a relatively brief dose of Lady Macbeth's unique methods of persuasion, promising the exact opposite. Lady Macbeth disparages Macbeth's manhood and sneers at his honor, but it is also the sheer rhetorical force of her speeches that overwhelms him. When he has been persuaded, there is a combination of relief and admiration in his words:

Bring forth men-children only;
For thy undaunted mettle should compose
Nothing but males.

Although Lady Macbeth's influence seems to fade towards the end of the play, she is still clearly in charge in act 3, scene 4, and is using exactly the same tactics of scorn and emasculation. She associates cowardice with women and Macbeth with both as she rebukes him for his display of fear at the sight of Banquo's ghost:

O proper stuff!
This is the very painting of your fear:
This is the air-drawn dagger which, you said,
Led you to Duncan. O, these flaws and starts,
Impostors to true fear, would well become
A woman's story at a winter's fire,
Authorized by her grandam.

Last Updated by eNotes Editorial on April 23, 2020
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Lady Macbeth dominates her husband in the first part of the play. At that point, they have a very close relationship. She manipulates him and threatens his masculinity by saying that if she had promised to dash her baby's brains out she would do it, implying he will be unmanly if he doesn't go through with Duncan's murder.

The murder, however, begins to separate them from each other. Being king does not bring Macbeth the happiness he thought it would. He is, in fact, unhappier than he was before. He lives in constant fear of being deposed. As he becomes harder and more miserable he closes off into himself. Increasingly, he acts on his own, without consulting with Lady Macbeth.

Lady Macbeth, too, becomes more isolated and unhappy. Guilt for the murder of Duncan overtakes her and drives her to madness. The couple becomes so distant that Macbeth has to be told by servants how badly his wife is doing. Shortly after he learns of her madness, she commits suicide. Macbeth, at this point, can hardly feel grief because his conscience is deadened. His simply sees life as series of miserable tomorrows that have to be endured until he finally can die.

Due to their evil act, a supportive relationship is ruined. Lady Macbeth loses her influence over her husband as the two grow apart.

Last Updated by eNotes Editorial on April 23, 2020
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Almost the first thing Lady Macbeth does after Macbeth returns home in Act 1, Scene 5, is give him instructions, showing that she is certainly the more dominant partner in their relationship.  She says that, when Duncan arrives, he should "Look like th' innocent flower, / But be the serpent under 't" (1.5.67-68).  In other words, she directs him to appear loyal and good as he always has, but to harbor his murderous intentions in secret.  In fact, the final line of the scene is hers: she tells Macbeth, "Leave all the rest to me."  She will do all the planning of Duncan's murder, and she actually intends to commit the murder herself, believing that Macbeth is too "full of the milk of human kindness" to do it himself. 

Later, when Macbeth decides not to go through with Duncan's murder, Lady Macbeth essentially tells him that he is behaving like a coward and implies that he is not a man.  She says that she would kill her own baby if she'd promised him she'd do it rather than break the promise to him.  In this way, she goads Macbeth into recommitting to the plan.

Even after the murder -- which Lady Macbeth was not actually able to commit, and so Macbeth had to do it -- he regrets his actions and immediately feels tremendously guilty.  Macbeth panics because he could not speak the word "Amen," and Lady Macbeth tells him, "These deeds must not be thought / After these ways.  So, it will make us mad" (2.2.32-33).  She commands him to move on and stop dwelling on what they did because it is in the past.  If they continue to dwell on it, it will drive them crazy.  She coerced him to submit to their plan and then to actually commit the murder himself when he was the one who really didn't want to do it.  Lady Macbeth knows exactly how to dominate her husband, how to stir his pride and ambition and, thus, manipulate him into behaving just how she wants him to.  At least, this is true for the first part of the play.

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