How were Jewish people persecuted in Holland?

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Prior to the rise of the Nazi party in Germany, Jewish people in Holland were relatively economically integrated and accepted by Dutch society, compared to Jewish people elsewhere in Europe. Tens of thousands of Jewish people living in Nazi Germany fled to Holland to escape persecution between 1939 and 1940, increasing the Jewish population of the country to 140,000. However, the Nazi occupation of Holland beginning in 1940 led to worsening conditions for this population. Nazis instituted laws that removed Jewish people from their schools, jobs, and houses. The Dutch government collaborated with the German government to deport Jewish people living in Holland to concentration camps including Auschwitz and Sobibor. By 1946, there were only 30,000 Jewish people living in Holland- only 20 percent of the population prior to the Holocaust. The population continued to decrease in the following decades due to emigration elsewhere in Europe or to Palestine. Today, the much smaller Jewish population of Holland does not experience direct persecution, but many Dutch Jews live outside of Holland or were descended from victims of Nazi occupation of their country.

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