How is the theme of class present in the book?

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According to the tenets of Animalism, all animals are created equal and should enjoy the same privileges as they live in harmony on Animal Farm. Tragically, Napoleon usurps power, vanquishes Snowball from the farm, and establishes a tyranny founded on class warfare. Under Napoleon's reign, the pigs form an aristocracy, where they create the farm's policies and enforce prejudiced laws which oppress the other animals on the farm. Animal Farm is then divided into two classes, which include the ruling intellectual elite and the oppressed working class. As the ruling members of society, the pigs possess complete authority and enjoy certain privileges while the other animals suffer and perform manual labor.

With the help of Napoleon's nine ferocious dogs, the pigs exploit the other animals for their labor by withholding rations and physically threatening them. The upper-class pigs are also the only educated animals on the farm and enjoy the privilege of sleeping in the farmhouse and eating the best foods. The pigs also gradually alter the Seven Commandments to correspond with Napoleon's current policies and consume the natural resources on the farm while the other animals starve. In order to cement their authority, the pigs prohibit other animals from learning and live separately. Overall, Orwell offers a vivid description of class warfare and illustrates the various ways the privileged, elite members of society continue to oppress and exploit the lower class.

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