How is education, power, and powerlessness represented in chapter 1 of Hard Times?
Education is represented in chapter 1 of Hard Times as a tool of social control in the hands of the powerful. It is used almost as a weapon against the powerless, who must take instruction from their alleged social betters. This would include the pedantic Mr. Gradgrind, who insists on his pupils rote-learning facts.
In the opening chapter of Hard Times, we're introduced to the unforgettable figure of Mr. Gradgrind, the hard-headed utilitarian pedant who insists on his unfortunate pupils rote-learning a whole bunch of facts, which he regards as the very essence of education. Gradgrind makes it abundantly clear that he's the one who's in charge. What he says, goes; what he teaches is nothing short of gospel. He's therefore in a very powerful position with respect to the children who attend his school.
These children come from the lower classes, those without power in this rigidly hierarchical society. Gradgrind's insistence on the teaching of facts and nothing else at his school is a method of social control. The children at his school are not to be taught how to use their imaginations or to broaden their horizons. They are to be taught the bare facts and nothing more, as this is all that they'll need when they leave school and enter the labor market in this rapidly developing industrial economy.
Gradgrind's teaching methods have nothing to do with empowering his pupils; he simply wants to exert the power of his social class over them. They are there to be taught what the bourgeoisie, the rising class in society, believes. And they must sit there and do as they're told.
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