Capitalism is clearly and boldly criticized in the powerful novel Petals of Blood, written by Kenyan author, Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o. In the novel, foreign and domestic capitalists are attempting to plunge Kenya into the world of capitalism. Through this, the poor of Kenya become poorer, and the rich—and those who are willing to crush those around and beneath them—become richer. As the novel progresses, the village of Ilmorog transforms into a "modernized" town in which transnational corporations and domestic business owners enjoy an elite life while the rest of the people in the town suffer from the ruthless economic practices.
Capitalism is a system in which surplus and scarcity is fundamental to its economic model. The wealthy owning class have the surplus and the poor experience scarcity. Sometimes, as is the case in capitalist countries with large middle classes, there are those who experience abundance. But that abundance rests completely on the existence of surplus for the rich and scarcity for the poor. In Petals of Blood, it is the multinational corporations, the wealthy foreign investors, and the ruthless domestic business people who come out on top.