Another way to understand what is meant by context is "setting." The context or setting of the text is determined by the circumstances under which the story/text/speech is taking place, including where, when, the audience, the mood, etc.
Persuasive language can be identified by analyzing the use of various rhetorical devices. One heuristic for evaluating the use of persuasion is the Aristotelian triad of ethos, pathos, and logos. These modes of persuasion refer to the different types of authority/legitimacy arguments can appeal to. Ethos can be located where the author is making an ethical appeal on the basis of their credibility (expertise or pedigree). Pathos can be identified in verses where the author elicits emotional responses from the audience - by using techniques such as meaning-loaded language, examples or stories of emotional events, and/or tone of voice. Logos can be identified on the basis of the author's use of logic or reason - such as using theory, citing facts, constructing historical analogies, etc. However, in addition to these broader modes of persuasion, specific rhetorical devices can also be analyzed for evaluating the efficacy of persuasion, some of these include: alliteration, allusion, anaphora, antithesis, epithet, hyperbole, metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron or paradox, parallelism, etc.
The structure of the speech can be identified through analyzing how the argument is built, arranged, and organized. There are many different ways to structure an argument. One way is in terms of a chronological sequence, where order is temporally imposed through signaling words such as: first, then, finally, next, or specific dates. Another way to organize the structure is in terms of cause and effect, where events are described and then causal factors explicated. Additional techniques include: problem/solution, compare/contrast, how-to directions, etc.