How does Hester change from the beginning of The Scarlet Letter, when she is scorned by the townspeople, to when she is reintegrated into Boston?  

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The scarlet letter has a profound effect on Hester, causing her to change and grow. She could have started a new life where nobody knew of her past or her shame, but she decides to bear the consequences of her adultery and do penance among those who scorn her, a testament to her strength of character.

She is lonely and isolated because of the stigma attached to the letter, which causes her to turn inward. As chapter 2 informs us, the letter

had the effect of a spell, taking her out of the ordinary relations with humanity, and inclosing her in a sphere by herself.

This way of living, however, makes her stronger and more self reliant. Showing the sexism of the time, the narrator casts this strength as a sad loss of womanliness or femininity. We learn in chapter 13 that:

Some attribute had departed from her, the permanence of which had been essential to keep her a woman.

The narrator goes on to describe this as a loss of "tenderness," manifested in Hester no longer being a dependent sex object with...

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