Your question might imply that the English Civil War (1642-51) was central in the religious development of England and indeed, the British Isles as a whole (Scotland, Ireland, England). It was. The religious controvery that led into it was the Catholic vs. Protestant conflict started during the reign of Henry the Eighth (early 1500's). This conflict gripped all of Europe during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In England it became a struggle between the Episcopalian or "nearly Catholic but nominally Protestant" Anglican church, allied with the King and representing central power, and the more loosely organized and goverend Protestant sects allied with Parliament. The Protestants--called "Puritans"--gained a great victory, but in England this was short-lived. In Scotland the Presbyterian church, also Protestant, gained the upper hand. And in Ireland the Catholic majority was oppressed in a way that led to issues that dominated British history until very recently.