The gender dynamics of the aftermath of war which Euripides explored in Troades—usually rendered in English as The Trojan Women–more than 2,400 years ago have continued to resonate with audiences through the works of multiple interpreters up until the present day. In emphasizing women’s participation in recovery after war, Euripides presents an array of behaviors and impacts as he features strong female characters as well as including victims. Some women, such as Hecuba, blame other women for the war seek violent revenge. Cassandra’s outspokenness and its futility have inspired many writers. Both the complexity of his characterizations and the range of issues addressed opened a door for other creative minds to grapple with such topics. Many theater companies have staged the play in translation and often incorporated direct or implicit references to contemporary wars and their aftermath.
Regarding theatrical interpretations, in the 1960s, Jean-Paul Sartre’s Les Troyennes notably connected the Trojan War with World War II and anti-colonial struggles. In 1974, experimental theater activist Ellen Stewart produced an American version at La Mama Experimental Theater in New York. It has since been performed in more than 30 countries. Relevance to contemporary conflicts has resonated with audiences in Guatemala, Kosovo, and elsewhere.
While all the strong female characters have drawn attention, it may be the doomed prophetess Cassandra who resonates most with modern audiences. The curse she suffers of never being heeded has been taken as a metaphor for silencing women’s voices. In a novel and related essays, Christa Wolf has repositioned Cassandra at the center of her own narrative, thus endowing her with a strong voice.