How has the court treated juvenile criminal cases and procedures when it comes to juvenile civil rights?

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Prior to the 1960s, there were little to no civil rights that specifically addressed the rights of juveniles within the legal system. As mass incarceration of youth has skyrocketed, particularly against poor, black, and brown youth, a series of procedures have been established to address the reality of incarcerated or criminally charged youth.

While most people targeted by the police/legal system are stripped of many aspects of human autonomy, youth are even more-so oppressed by a legal system that already assumes a basic lack of autonomy for non-adults. For example, while youth are generally, technically protected by the same "probable cause" standard in order to detain and search someone, adults in parental and quasi-parental roles, such as teachers, are able to detain and search youth based on a much lower standard of "reasonable suspicion", which often translates into blatant racism and classism.

Upon being held prisoner by the state, youth are legally allowed at least one phone call, similar to incarcerated adults. However, youth are not given a constitutional right to seek bail, and must wait to be released into the hands of a guardian by the juvenile legal system. Juveniles do still, however, have a right to remain silent and to seek an attorney upon arrest.

When facing a charge or multiple charges, juvenile defendants have a right to knowledge of their charges, the right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, the 5th amendment right against self-incrimination, and the right to have a trial held to the same standard of proof beyond reasonable doubt as an adult defendant. However, most states do not allow jury trials for youth defendants.

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