DNA technology revolutionized the criminal justice system. Before this technology was available, the best you could hope for was to maybe identify the blood type. This assumes of course that part of the evidence was a blood sample. Even when you knew the blood type, this did not help you a great deal in ID'ing the perpetrator of the crime. With DNA technology, any biological sample can be used to get a DNA profile. Substances like hair, blood, saliva, or semen can be analyzed by a lab that does these types of tests and ID'ing the interloper is much easier when you have a sample to compare it to. DNA doesn't lie, like fingerprints, your DNA is unique to you.
DNA technology has improved methods of identification by replacing the use of fingerprints. Although fingerprinting is still used, DNA "fingerprinting" is being used more and more.
"DNA fingerprinting dates back to 1985 when it was first developed in England by Sir Alec Jeffreys, and it has been considered the greatest achievement in forensic science since the development of fingerprinting as a means of personal identification more than one hundred years ago."
DNA "fingerprinting" has assisted law enforcement with identifying criminals and with exonerating individuals who were falsely accused of a crime. DNA "fingerprinting" has been utilized in paternity cases, most recently in the Anna Nicole Smith paternity case.
One of the newest processes used of establishing identity of persons is DNA Fingerprinting. This process uses analysis of genetic material contained in some substances such as blood, hair, or semen to identify the person from whom these substances have come.
DNA is the genetic material, called deoxyribonucleic acid present in most cells of living organisms. The DNA structure varies greatly from person to person, and it is highly unlikely that DNA structure of two person will be exactly alike. However the variation in DNA structures is not random. Rather thee is close resemblance in DNA structure of a person with his parents, children and siblings. Utilizing these characteristics of DNA, the technique of DNA fingerprinting analyses and classifies the structure of DNA extracted from evidence. This pattern can then be compared with similar pattern of known person to identify the original source of the evidence.
This techniques is used for various purposes such as identifying criminals or victims of crimes. This techniques is also used to establish parentage of of people.