How has David Strorm developed in terms of characteristics in The Chrysalids?

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John Wyndham's science fiction novel belongs to a post-nuclear world. Nuclear radiations have resulted in mutations and abnormalities. A cult Christian community in Waknuk becomes intolerant to deviations.

We can see David's innocent nature when he plays with Sophie and does not understand how an extra toe can cause harm. As David grows up, he realizes that he is a telepath and a part of an exclusive group that has telepathic abilities. They decide to hide their skills to save their lives. Soon he realizes that these beliefs are fundamentally flawed. He has two choices—to liberate himself or get killed.

Three people play a significant role in David's transformation. Uncle Axel, Sophie, and the Sealand lady inspire him to accept himself and challenge prejudiced views. David takes his younger sister Petra and his cousin Rosalind. Together they escape the tyrannical Waknukian society.

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David is introduced to the reader as a young boy.  The narrative quickly moves him into early teenage years.  He is the son of a very powerful man in the Waknuk society, so David is immediately respected a bit more than other teenagers.  David is portrayed as trustworthy throughout the story.  The best early example of this is the fact that he kept Sophie's secret of having six toes.  According to Waknuk rules, David should have reported that genetic variation, and Sophie should have been banished, killed, or sterilized.  

The fact that he kept the secret shows an early change in David's overall character.  He shifts from being a boy that adheres to the rules with basically no questions asked, to being a rebel leader of sorts for the Deviant telepaths.  A reason for his transformation is tied to a key character trait of his.  David is a protective person.  He protects his friends.  He protects Sophie, and he frequently must protect his younger sister, Petra.  

The next day I tried to send thought-shapes to Petra. It seemed to me important for her to know as soon as possible that she must not give herself away. I tried hard, but I could make no contact with her.

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