How did America change socially, politically, and economically from 1607 to 1763?
A large question to answer in such a short space, so let me get you started. As 1607 was the original English settlement of Jamestown, the next 156 years would bring about profound changes in all three areas. From a few hundred settlers to 1.6 million by the end of the French and Indian War in 1763.
In addition, we had developed two distinct economies, one based largely on slavery, and another based on merchant trade and subsistence farming. This would come to haunt us later.
You can also argue that the population here, as diverse as it was, came to see themselves as socially different than their English counterparts, and during the French and Indian War, referred to themselves as "Americans" for the first time in journals, perhaps a sign of how a distinct identity had formed in the colonies.