How had the technology of warfare changed between the American Civil War and World War I? What effects did these changes have on tactics and strategy?

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Technology changed significantly between the Civil War and World War I. In the Civil War, metal-plated shapes were an anomaly and used in river warfare only; by World War I, these ships became the norm and the massive battleships were considered the pride of the major powers' navies. All the major powers of World War I used submarines to sink merchant shipping, and this altered the rules of war, as a submarine had to hide under the sea before attack. During the Civil War, it was standard procedure to give crews time to leave the ship before it was attacked. German unrestricted submarine warfare was one of the reasons that the United States joined World War I.

The airplane brought a new dimension to warfare that was not present during the Civil War. While the Union used observation balloons during the Peninsula Campaign, these were not the norm, and both armies used cavalry to scout enemy lines. The airplane, first developed in 1903, became a useful war weapon for reconnaissance and even...

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