Globalization and Technological Advancements

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With the aid of examples, explain how globalization has affected an industry of your choice.

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Another industry significantly impacted by globalization is the food industry. Before globalization, food production and distribution occurred on a local scale; with urbanization and expansion, food is now produced and distributed globally. In many ways this shift has increased food availability, affordability, and diversity; it is now easier and cheaper...

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Another industry significantly impacted by globalization is the food industry. Before globalization, food production and distribution occurred on a local scale; with urbanization and expansion, food is now produced and distributed globally. In many ways this shift has increased food availability, affordability, and diversity; it is now easier and cheaper to ship food to most locations. This provides consumers in developed countries with a wider array of choices and convenience; bridging cultural and geographic barriers and allowing customers to choose "what they want, when they want it." It has changed dietary habits, improved food safety, and allows companies to reach a wider range of consumers.

However, the benefits of food globalization are not evenly distributed, and there are several significant consequences of globalization. Increased preservation technology and affordability has contributed to the rise of fast food chains and highly processed goods, which are generally characterized by decreased nutrition standards and contribute to malnutrition and obesity. These negative effects are largely experienced by low-income and minority communities who do not have the resources to access healthier options. This creates "food deserts"; locations in which access to fruits and vegetables is severely limited, leaving only highly processed and unhealthy options. When combined with increased urbanization and decreased land available for agriculture, food security and availability can be significantly diminished. On a national scale, the globalization of the food industry has also reduced food sovereignty in developing countries as local suppliers have been out-competed by multi-national corporations, further exacerbating existing social and economic inequalities.

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One industry that has been significantly affected by globalization is the automotive industry. Originally, automotive manufacturers were vertically integrated and operated in individual countries or regions, exporting completed products to countries without indigenous car industries or with less sophisticated ones. The contemporary car industry has moved to a “design anywhere, make anywhere, sell anywhere” model.

In the 1960s, the "big three" (Ford, GM, and Chrysler) dominated the US car market. The first seismic shift to a more globalized model occurred in the 1970s when Volkswagen and Toyota began to challenge the oligopoly of the big three with inexpensive, fuel-efficient models. 

The 1990s saw full globalization of the automotive industry, with US car makers investing in foreign ones and automotive firms building plants across the world. Supply chains also became increasingly globalized.

In the 21st century, the automotive industry has become fully globalized to the point where an "American" car might be designed in Italy, built of Chinese materials and Canadian parts, and assembled in Mexico, and sold by dealerships relying on call centers in the Philippines and IT offices in India. 

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