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Ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus are related to each other through their involvement in protein synthesis and transport.
Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis and carry out this work by assembling the amino acids in the appropriate sequence, as dictated by the mRNA (messenger RNA). These cell organelles are most commonly found embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum. Large scale protein synthesis is possible due to the very large surface area offered by the endoplasmic reticulum to the ribosomes. The main function of the endoplasmic reticulum is to transport the newly synthesized proteins over to the Golgi apparatus. The primary role of the Golgi apparatus is to modify the proteins and encase them into vesicles. From here they are transported to the various parts of the cell.
Hence the three cell organelles are related in their functions of protein synthesis and transport.
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Ribosomes, along with RNA (m, t, and r), work to produce proteins. If ribosomes are located on the endoplasmic reticulum, then it is called a rough endoplasmic reticulum (due to the "bumpy" appearance given by the ribosomes).
The endoplasmic reticulum takes the proteins that are made by the ribosomes and folds them into sacs that are called cisternae. It then transports these folded proteins to the Golgi apparatus.
The Golgi apparatus is a series of membranes that look like flattened pancakes. Molecules leave the ER in what are called transition vesicles (sacs) and enter the Golgi apparatus. When the molecules enter the Golgi apparatus they are stored and charged. They are then released from the Golgi apparatus in what are called secretory vesicles into the cytoplasm. From there, the materials are delivered to the cell membrane and exit the cell.
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