How is Francie Nolan, the protagonist, a dynamic (changing) character, like how does she generally change in A Tree Grows in Brooklyn?

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As Francie Nolan grows up she becomes more objectively aware of the deprivation and the generally unfair conditions of working-class life. From the start she sees the defeated, fatalistic attitude of her alcoholic father, Johnny, but accepts it as inevitable, like a force of nature. As he tries to explain to her the reasons for his drinking, she patiently answers, "Yes, Papa," and at this point she's too young to understand the deeper reasons for his fatalism. But within Francie, even at this early stage, there is a will to get beyond the poverty of her milieu and to flourish in her own way.

Later, especially after the death of her father, her awareness of the emptiness inherent in the general conditions of life around her becomes sharper. But at the same time, another side of Brooklyn, Francie's sense that it's somehow a place imbued with a kind of magic, is also objectified. It coincides with her awareness of herself as a young woman, and of her own special character that she knows will enable her to break free of the constraints of her upbringing. Her ambition, symbolized for instance in her wish to read every book in the library from A to Z, has been present from the beginning of the story when she is much younger. By the close of the novel, however, she recognizes more firmly that she, like the eponymous tree, can flower and thus achieve success in spite of her background of deprivation and poverty.

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At the beginning of the novel, Francie Nolan is an introspective and dreamy child who sits on the fire escape of her tenement and thinks about the miraculous Tree of Heaven, which thrives in a difficult environment. Over time, she becomes more hardened to the world, and though she never loses her love of writing and poetry, she becomes more realistic and better able to turn her dreams into reality. In this sense, she becomes more and more like her mother, Katie, who is practical and hardworking and who manages to help her children get an education though they are very poor.

For example, Francie manages to work with her father to be transferred to a better school in a more prosperous neighborhood, as her neighborhood school is hopeless. Later, though she has to drop out of school to support her family, she is able to work to pass the entrance exams to college. She is a dynamic character who changes over the course of the novel, as she combines her dreaminess and love of reading with a practical sense of how to get ahead in a life that presents her with many challenges.

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Francie Nolan, the protagonist of Betty Smith's A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, is a dynamic character because she grows increasingly confident over the course of the story.  Early in the novel, Francie does much to win the affection of her parents because she feels that she is not the favored child.  As she gets older and recognizes the talent that she has for writing, Francie becomes more confident and decides that she wants an opportunity to go to a better school.  When the family is struck by hard times, Francie does not lose the hope of getting a better education, yet in the meantime she supports her family in every way that she can.  The reader witnesses Francie constantly dealing with the ups and downs that befall her family; Francie, although sad at times, never loses her confidence and hopes for better days.

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