Firemen symbolize secret police throughout the novel Fahrenheit 451. Bradbury uses firemen to represent the secret police of totalitarian governments who hunt down political dissidents. In the novel, firemen are called to destroy illegal books which rebellious members of society harbor. Similar to the Gestapo of Nazi Germany and the Ustase of Croatia, the firemen arrest individuals who challenge the authority of the state.
Burning books are symbolic of censorship and control throughout the novel. Books represent authentic ideas that can challenge authority in the dystopian society. Censorship is an important theme throughout the novel Fahrenheit 451, and is the reason firemen burn books. Beatty explains to Montag that authors present controversial ideas that offend people. He explains that in the dystopian society, everyone wants to be comfortable and not worry about the judgemental ideas in literature. Burning the books represses information and allows the government more control over the population. Without revolutionary rhetoric and an understanding of history, citizens of the dystopian society are less likely to rebel against the government.
According to ancient myths, salamanders were able to live in fire without being harmed. The firemen wear jackets with salamander patches sewn on the sleeves, and also drive a firetruck, which they call the Salamander. Salamanders symbolize the control that firemen have over flames.