Animal Farm attempts to show how the Russians are doing a poor job of implementing communism/socialism in their country following the Russian Revolution in the early 1900’s. Old Major, the respected pig who first communicates that idea that animals can be free from human control, represents the historical figure of Karl Marx, the father of communism.
After revolting and taking over the farm, the animals are supposed to create a society in which all animals share equally in the wealth of the farm. Of course, just like in Russia and everywhere else, this doesn’t happen. Although, one of the Seven Commandments of Animalism states that “All animals are equal,” the animals, except for the ruling class (the pigs) end up no better off, and sometimes worse off, than they were under Farmer Jones.
Ironically, the animals (except for the privileged pigs) are equal in their poverty and degradation, but this was not the equality they were promised.