How would all the elements of the Prism model and Fillmore's three crucial components come into play in a classroom teaching CLD students how to weight lift properly?
Hello! If I am not mistaken, you are referring to how Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Students (CLD) can be taught how to weight lift properly using the elements of the Prism model and Fillmore's three crucial components.
Fillmore's three components of second language learning:
1) The level of interest in second language learners.
The teacher has to determine the CLD student's interest in weight-lifting. Limited interest can often be sparked with rich multimedia resources. More below.
2) The support second language learners receive from proficient speakers.
The level of enthusiasm in CLD teachers will often cause a mirroring of the same enthusiasm in CLD students for the subject matter. Teachers may share their own experiences (if any) with weight lifting, using accessible language. Harder words can often be translated as a natural occurrence; with repetition, the vocabulary becomes more accessible throughout the lesson.
3) An environment which supports the interaction of second language learners and proficient speakers.
Second language learners may often possess certain socio-cultural beliefs about interaction in the classroom. Some CLD students come from cultures which promote the belief of the educator as infallible and detached; this makes the teacher a less accessible figure to many CLD students. CLD teachers may need to utilize socially constructed learning to enable CLD students to feel more comfortable participating in the classroom. To that end, well-engineered prompts and assisted responses to direct questioning (scaffolded learning) may help students to formulate better responses. More prompting may be needed to aid less receptive students; more prompting may be helpful because each successive effort by the student fosters an atmosphere of personal success crucial to continued effort by the student.
As an example: a CLD teacher could show a short video about the benefits of weight-lifting or even a short clip from a movie where the hero has obviously improved his own life through extensive exercise. A short documentary about the benefits of proper methods of weight lifting might be useful. Rich imagery and usage of modern references are helpful aids to foster student interest. The teacher could then ask the students why weight lifting correctly matters at all. Depending on the responses, teachers can help by recasting, expanding, or encouraging elaboration of student responses.
This website provides an example of how teachers can do this. Scroll down to the title Enlarging the teacher's repertoire. There are helpful hints on how the teacher should respond when the student answers in his/her first language. These hints can be adapted for both the lower grades and high school grades.
The Prism model has four major components which drive language acquisition:
1) sociocultural processes- These processes include all the sociocultural factors which will determine the success of CLD students such as
a) families' immigration experience
b) differences in school and home social expectations
c) cultural beliefs regarding teacher and student interactions.
d) cultural anxieties or assimilation/acculturation difficulties.
2) linguistic processes- This includes the acquisition of all the written and oral systems CLD students have acquired in both first and second languages.
3) academic processes- This includes the combination of academic preparation as well as linguistic preparation (vocabulary, punctuation, etc.) necessary for efficient progress. In the past, academic content was often sacrificed for the sake of language learning. To be effective, academic content may have to be taught during one period and language learning (to reinforce that academic content) may have to be taught in another parallel class. Some schools decide on a one-year intensive English-only course to facilitate the subsequent combination of both academic and linguistic content.
4) cognitive processes- Thought processes are developed through interaction with proficient speakers; therefore, combining simultaneous cognitive development in both first and second languages presents an advantage for the CLD student.
Comment: With the weight-lifting multimedia resources mentioned above, teachers may provide a transcript of the video to facilitate understanding. Difficult words can be handled in accessible portions. Based on teacher-prompting to questions about the video, students may provide short/partial answers; accept the answers and model more complete answers in standard English. Allow for time for CLD students to code-switch from the first language to the second language. Focus on content more than on grammatical structure when accepting student responses. This increases student interaction. Finding time to interact with the CLD student on a one-to-one basis also facilitates understanding of acculturation/assimilation difficulties.
Please refer to the links below for further ideas and reading. This appears to be an extensive topic, but I hope what I have written is helpful. Thanks for the question!