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Your use of the word ECONOMIES as a sector that can offer planning is interesting. I think using government would be more appropriate. Then which type of government with which economy, as there are many ways to form a government.
The United States, as a Republic, does plan for education and employment. They not only provide for public universities and public schools, they offer grants and programs to encourage all to attend. A free education is a right guaranteed all until they reach whatever age a state deems appropriate, since the right to control education is a right denied the US government and granted to the states.
The way a government plans for employment is seen the jobs the government offers and tax programs as incentives to employers to higher different sectors of the public. For instance, if you, as a private company, have a federal contract, your hiring practices must meet federal guidelines in the employment of minority populations, gender and disabled individuals.
When the government spends money on infrastructure, it creates jobs. It is the lack of infrastructure in some countries that prevents them from moving from least developed country to developing nation, and hopefully, eventually to a developed nation.
The jobs created pump money into an economy. If I now have enough money to buy things, I create a demand for product that will give another person or company a job in supplying that product. They, in turn, now have money to also purchase goods and services. When that economy gets going, it creates enough additional jobs that it draws people into it from outside and also creates fall back jobs for those who originally were getting paid to build the infrastructure.
At least in capitalist economies, the economies themselves do not plan for education and employment at all. In many cases, the governments plan for education and employment, but the private sector generally does not.
The only way that I think you can really say that the private sector plans for this is by creating private educational institutions and by having training programs within certain companies. Private schools arise out of demand by consumers for education that is different than that provided by the public system. You could say this is an example of planning for education.
In most big companies (like when I worked at McDonalds, for instance) there are training programs for new employees and for employees who wish to move up in the company. These are provided because the firms believe that this is the best way for them to make people ready for employment within their firm.
All governments including communist and non-communist governments plan for education as well as employment. The actual process may differ from government to government, but the core of the planning process be same for different governments as well as for other economic and social requirements of the country.
The process of planning for any essential economic or social requirements such as education and employment involves core activities like:
- Determining the current levels of education and employment.
- The current trend in the availability of facilities that affect provision of education and employment.
- The current trend in increase in requirement of the society for education and employment. Here it must be noted that the requirements in different areas may be interrelated. For example the requirements of education required by people will be influenced by the kind of employment opportunities that will be available to them.
- Estimation in future gaps in education and employment facilities.
- Assessment of various ways of bridging these gaps.
- Assessment of availability of resources for bridging the gaps.
- Allocation of available resources to various requirements. For example decision will be taken for the resources to be used for development of various areas like education, healthcare, pollution control, industrial development, agricultural development, and so on. This activity will include fixing of performance targets planned to be achieved using the allocated resource.
- Working out of detailed plans and programs to achieve the performance targets using the allocated resources.
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