Absolute monarchy, the Baroque movement and the Scientific Revolution all represent the end of the Middle Ages and the dawn of a new era, the Early Modern period. They represent new ideas in the relationship between society and religion: absolute monarchs believed themselves to be God's representative, the Baroque movement was spurred on by the Council of Trent, in response to the Protestant Reformation, and the Scientific Revolution witnessed a new understanding in our world view and the relationship between humans, nature and God.
In terms of difference, these movements all affected society in different ways. The absolute monarch dominated the political arena while the Baroque movement transformed material culture and architecture. The Scientific Revolution was perhaps the most dramatic of all, paving the way for the Age of Exploration and the dawn of industrialization.