How does the U.S. Constitution organize the government?
The Constitution of the United States organizes the government by creating three branches of government. It created a system of separation of powers and checks and balances.
According to plan laid out in the Constitution, there are three branches of government. There is a legislative branch, which is itself made up of two houses of Congress. That branch is responsible for making the laws. There is an executive branch that is headed by the President. Its job is enforcing the laws. There is a judicial branch, headed by the Supreme Court of the United States. It interprets the laws passed by the other branches as well as the Constitution itself. This is the basic organization of the government into three branches with separation of powers.
The Constitution also organized the government to have a system of checks and balances where each branch of government has some power over the others. The President, for example, can veto bills passed by Congress. The Congress has some power over the judicial branch because it funds that branch and it (the Senate) can approve or reject people who are nominated as judges. These checks and balances, along with others, ensure that each branch can make it harder for the others to act independently.
In these ways, the Constitution organizes a system of government whose powers are separated between three branches of government, each of which can check the others.