How does the friendship between Macbeth and Banquo change in act 1, scene 3 and act 3, scene 1?

The friendship between Macbeth and Banquo changes dramatically from act 1, scene 3 to act 3, scene 1. In the earlier scene, they are equals: good friends, Scots nobles, and loyal subjects of their king. By the later scene, Banquo rightly suspects Macbeth of regicide, and Macbeth plots to murder Banquo and Fleance to prevent Banquo from fathering a line of kings. Macbeth grows murderous, envious, and paranoid, and the friendship deteriorates as a result.

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In act 1, scene 3, Banquo and Macbeth have just battled a host of foes and emerged victorious, for Scotland and for their king. Banquo calls Macbeth his "noble partner," and he asks the Weird Sisters to predict his future as they have seemed to prophesy Macbeth's (1.3.57). His words and manner suggest that he sees himself and Macbeth as equals. At this point, they are equals: both are Scots nobles, both are loyal to the crown, and are both victorious in the battles against those who have risen against that crown. They are casual and open with one another.

However, by act 3, scene 1, everything has changed. Now, Banquo suspects that his former friend murdered their king in order to usurp that role. He says to himself,

Thou hast it now—king, Cawdor, Glamis, all
As the Weird Women promised, and I fear
Thou played'st most foully for't. (3.1.1–3)

Banquo also considers that since the titles the Weird Sisters promised to Macbeth have come to fruition, then perhaps the titles they promised to Banquo's own children will, to. The Weird Sisters told him that he would father a line of kings, and Banquo does not concern himself with how his former friend might feel about that.

When Banquo speaks to Macbeth, he calls the king "your Highness," as is appropriate, and says that Macbeth can "command" him and Banquo will do his duty (3.1.17, 18). He does not speak of loyalty or love or friendship, but, rather, the duty that any subject owes to his monarch. Further, Macbeth is plotting to have Banquo killed, and Fleance too, because he "fears" Banquo's "royalty of nature," as well as his courage and wisdom (3.1.53, 54). Macbeth is angry and envious that Banquo will father kings when his own reign will remain "fruitless" and "barren" (3.1.66, 67). Everything is different now between them, and any friendship or loyalty they once enjoyed with one another is gone.

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In Act III the relationship between Banquo and Macbeth has deteriorated since their encounter with the witches in Act I.

Banquo has demonstrated that he is a cautious man. After the witches have made their prophecies in Act I, Scene 3, Macbeth is persuaded by the appearance of truth in these predictions, noting that as the witches have said, he has become the Thane of Glamis and the Thane of Cawdor. Since these things have come to pass as predicted, Macbeth asks Banquo if he does not hope that the prediction that his sons will be kings will also come true. Not so easily swayed, Banquo cautions Macbeth against believing so quickly the words of the witches:

And, oftentimes, to win us to our harm,
The instruments of darkness tell us truths,
Win us with honest trifles, to betray's
In deepest consequence....(1.3.132-135)

Further, in Act II, Scene 1, Banquo's actions appear to reflect some anxiety. As he walks the halls of the castle at Inverness with his son Fleance, Banquo has cause to be nervous because he knows that Macbeth has readily believed in the witches' prediction about his becoming king without questioning the problematic nature of their other prediction of Banquo's future as the father of kings.

On the night of their arrival, Banquo asks his son Fleance if the moon is down and when Fleance tells him that it is, Banquo hands his son the sword he has been carrying, but as soon as he hears someone coming Banquo immediately takes it back. The person Banquo hears is Macbeth, who is still walking around even though the guest of honor, King Duncan, is "a-bed."

It is not long before Macbeth is confronted by Banquo holding his sword, asking "Who goes there?" Macbeth replies, "A friend" (2.1.10-11). Banquo then gives Macbeth a diamond necklace that the king has asked him to carry to Lady Macbeth as a gift for her hospitality. Banquo also tells his host that he dreamed the previous night of the "three weird sisters," adding, "To you they have showed some truth" (2.1.20). To this, Macbeth responds:

I think not of them.
Yet, when we can entreat an hour to serve,
We would spend it in some words upon that business,
If you would grant the time (2.1.22-25).

Here Macbeth suggests that he wishes to talk more with Banquo. Continuing, he says that if Banquo remains with him, there will be some reward for Banquo. Banquo replies that he will comply with Macbeth as long as nothing goes against his conscience:

MACBETH: If you shall cleave to my consent, when ’tis,
It shall make honor for you.

BANQUO: So I lose none
In seeking to augment it, but still keep
My bosom franchised and allegiance clear,
I shall be counselled.  (2.1.24-29)

As a result of this conversation, Banquo realizes that Macbeth intends to be king. Also, if Macbeth kills King Duncan in order to achieve this goal, then Banquo could be in danger, especially if he does not, as Macbeth has said, "cleave to [his] consent." (i.e. Remain loyal to Macbeth when the time comes). 

In Act III, Scene 1, Banquo speaks in a soliloquy. He acknowledges that Macbeth is king as the witches have predicted, but he fears that "Thou [Macbeth] play'dst most foully for 't" (3.1.2-3). Since he suspects that Macbeth has engaged in a foul deed in order to become king, Banquo wonders about how the witches' prediction about him may come to be. For one thing, he realizes that he would have to be dead in order for his sons to become kings. Consequently, Banquo loses his trust in Macbeth, especially in light of their conversation in Act II. Their relationship has now deteriorated to one that involves distrust and possible enmity rather than friendship. 

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In Act III, Banquo has lost faith in Macbeth. As Macbeth's best friend and fellow general, Banquo should be his biggest supporter. However, when Macbeth asks him to provide loyalty, Banquo's response is cold and distant:

MACBETH To-night we hold a solemn supper sir,
And I'll request your presence.

BANQUO Let your highness
Command upon me; to the which my duties
Are with a most indissoluble tie
Forever knit.

Banquo does not offer his kinship freely; Macbeth must "command" him to do it. Macbeth has become the king and Banquo is now his subject and not his peer. Macbeth actually uses the royal "we" in referring to Banquo. English custom dictated that a king had two bodies, an earthly one and a heavenly one. Therefore, kings and queens used the plural "we" to refer to themselves. By using this pronoun in reference to Banquo, Macbeth is reinforcing the distance that now exists between them.

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