How does Tennyson create an atmosphere in "Break, Break, Break"?

In the poem "Break, Break, Break," Tennyson creates an at times impassioned and at times melancholic atmosphere by using repetition, exclamatory sentences, and emotive language.

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The atmosphere of the poem "Break, Break, Break" is informed by the speaker's tone, which is sometimes impassioned and desperate and sometimes melancholic. The melancholy is created in part by the repetition of "O" in, for example, "O Sea!" The repeated "O" here conveys the speaker's sadness and distress. It is like a heavy, violent sigh. The speaker feels this way because he has lost somebody that he loved intensely.

The melancholic atmosphere is also created by emotive language such as "cold," "vanish'd," "tender," and "dead." These words describe the speaker's feelings now that his loved one is gone. He feels "cold" and alone and miserable in a world that now, without love, seems utterly "dead" to him. Indeed in the final lines of the poem the speaker laments that "the tender grace of a day that is dead / Will never come back" to him. In other words, with his loved one gone from the world, the speaker feels as if he will never again experience the simple joy of a new day.

There is also in some parts of the poem a more impassioned atmosphere. The repetition of exclamatory sentences, for example, suggests the speaker's inability to suppress the intense, profound grief that he feels. In the second stanza, the speaker imagines the joy experienced by "the fisherman's boy" or "the sailor lad," and both sentences that comprise the stanza are expressed as exclamatory sentences. This suggests that the joy of others causes great pain and suffering to the speaker because he is reminded of the joy that he can no longer experience.

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