From the very title itself and the description of how the river separates the community into two, this brilliant novel very swiftly introduces the idea of division as a result of colonialism. As we are introduced to the characters, more and more we understand the way that colonialism has resulted in a massive mix of beliefs and religions, as individuals find themselves trapped against a larger backdrop of tradition and behaviour that they may or may not agree with.
You might like to consider how this sense of confusion is captured most clearly in the central character of Waiyaki, who seems to dwell in both the ancestral world of tradition, but also the new world that has come to life as a result of colonialism. Even though he ultimately remains faithful to his own tribal community and background, he still draws upon the knowledge of the white community, and so is definitely a hybrid subject, as he becomes a mix of both worlds. Note the way that as an adult he implicitly recognises the differingpoints of view of both Joshua and Muthoni. Colonialism is therefore shown to create a huge confusion in identity, as characters such as Waiyaki struggle to incorporate elements of both of the worlds to which they belong, and risk rejection by both communities as a result.
This sense of confusion of identity is something that other principal characters experience. Muthoni faces a massive challenge as she feels part of both her tribe and Christianity, which her father finds to be completely incongruous. Nyambura is yet another character who finds her sense of identity confused by colonialism, as her love for Waiyaki and her desire to remain faithful to her religion and family show. Again and again, colonialism has given rise to hybrid or fractured characters who find it increasingly difficult to remain true to themselves and their own sense of hybrid identity yet be accepted by their families and communities.