Ribosomes synthesize proteins by a process known as translation. In this process, the genetic material is converted to functional proteins. The ribosomes are responsible for initiation at the right site, accurate elongation and termination of protein synthesis.
The ribosome consists mainly of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). The messenger RNA (mRNA) brings the coding information to the ribosome and contains the start and stop signals for the translation process. Transfer RNA (tRNA) locates and transfers the amino acid to the ribosome. tRNA are adapter molecules and contain anti-codon that match with codon of mRNA molecules. Initiator factors help ribosomes, initiator tRNA, and other components to assemble at the right location and ensure that assembly starts at the right location. The protein synthesis starts at the 5' end of mRNA and continues till it reaches the 3' end of mRNA. Ribosomes are moved along the mRNA by elongation factors, which also maintain the correct reading frame for the addition of amino acid to the nascent peptide chain. Elongation factors also remove the used tRNA and bring in new tRNA. Finally the termination factors recognize the stop codon and release the protein and ribosome.
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