While Caesar was in power, Rome had stability. The problem with this, from the point of view of Brutus, Cassius and the other conspirators, was that Caesar and those who supported him had betrayed the ideals of the Roman Republic and had created a dictatorship. For decades prior to Caesar Rome had been plagued by civil war and a massive slave uprising (the Spartacus rebellion) which almost destroyed the Roman state in spite of the fact that Rome had been steadily gaining strength as an imperial power. Caesar brought the internal situation under control but at that point not all Roman elites were prepared to cede power to one man. After Caesar's death the political situation changed to one of instability and civil war. For the next decade plus, there was no certainty of who would be in charge or what kind of government Rome would have. Only with the defeat of the conspirators, which Shakespeare depicts at the conclusion of the play, and then later the defeat of Antony himself by Octavian (which Shakespeare portrayed in Antony and Cleopatra) was stabilty again achieved. Octavian--taking the name Augustus--created a new kind of government, an Empire in which the outward forms of the Republic were retained but Augustus himself had power similar to that which his great-uncle Caesar had exercised before he was killed.