How does Orwell use the animals in Animal Farm to represent individuals & events of the Russian Revolution?
The universal message of George Orwell's "Animal Farm" is that all violent revolutions which aim to and initially succeed in overthrowing repressive totalitarian regimes, after a brief idealistic period rapidly deteriorate into totalitarian and repressive regimes themselves. Orwell illustrates and clarifies this profound universal truth by his allegorical novel "Animal Farm" in which the animals and the incidents represent the characters and incidents of the Russian Revolution.
1. Old Major represents either Karl Marx the author of the "Communist Manifesto" (1848) or Lenin who propagated his ideas in Russia which led to the overthrow of the last Czar who is represented by Mr.Jones in the novel.
2.Napoleon stands for Josef Stalin the ruthless dictator who eliminated his close friend and associate Leon Trotsky in the power struggle to take over the governance of Russia.
3. Snowball who is forced to flee "Animal Farm" represents Trotsky who had to flee Russia.
4. Squealer represents the "Pravda" the propaganda organ of the totalitarian Communist State of Russia.
5. Mr. Pilkington stands for England and her allies.
6. Frederick represents Germany.
7. The incidents related to the building of the windmill correspond to Lenin's ambitious plans for the complete electrification of Russia, although in actual history this did not lead to the quarrel between Stalin and Trotsky.